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বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক সম্পত্তি [ Intellectual property ]

বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক সম্পত্তি [ Intellectual property ] : বিস্তৃত অর্থে সকল সৃষ্টিই সম্পদ। সম্পদের অনেক প্রকারভেদ রয়েছে। তন্মধ্যে বৃদ্ধিবৃত্তিক সম্পদ অন্যতম। এ সম্পদ মানব সৃষ্ট সম্পদ। আল্লাহপাক মানুষকে যে বিবেক, বুদ্ধি (Rational power) দিয়েছেন অথবা অনুশীলন বা বিনিয়োগ পূর্বক যে সম্পদ প্রস্তুত বা তৈরী করা হয় তাকে বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক সম্পদ (Intellectual property) বলে।

বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক সম্পত্তি [ Intellectual property ]

পৃথিবীতে সকল সম্পদ সংরক্ষণের আইন ও বিধানাবলী রয়েছে। তেমনি বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক সম্পদেরও সংরক্ষণ এবং বিকাশমূলক আইন বিদ্যমান। মানুষ তার নিজস্ব বুদ্ধি খাটিয়ে যেমন উৎপাদন করতে পারে পণ্য, প্রযুক্তি, পদ্ধতি, নকশা- তেমনি সৃষ্টি করতে পারে সাহিত্য, গান এমনকি শিল্পকলা ইত্যাদি।

Intellectual Property Law একটি অতি সাম্প্রতিক ধারণ ।। মানুষ তার মেধাশি খাটিয়ে যে সব সম্পদ অর্জনে সক্ষম হয় সে সব সম্পত্তি সংরক্ষণের জন্যই মূলত Intellectual Property Law এর ধারণার সৃষ্টি হয়েছে। লেখক, আবিষ্কারক, সুনাম অর্জনকারী ব্যবসায়ী এবং অন্যান্য বুদ্ধিজীবী যারা নতুন নতুন আবিষ্কার, লেখনী, নতুন কোন সৃষ্টি মানুষের সম্মুখে তুলে ধরেন তারা যাতে এসব সৃষ্টির সুফল নিজে ভোগ করতে পারেন সে জন্য Inteilectual Property Law রক্ষা কবচ হিসেবে কাজ করে। মূলত: নিম্নোক্ত ছয় ধরণের সম্পত্তি Intellectual Property Law এর অন্তর্ভূক্ত। যেমন –

১) পেটেন্ট

২) ডিজাইন

৩) কপিরাইট

৪) ট্রেডমার্ক

৫) Confidential Information

৬) Know-how

এসব সম্পত্তির বেশিরভাগের জন্যই আলাদা করে আইন আছে যেমন: কপিরাইট আইন ২০০০, ট্রেডমার্কস এ্যাক্ট ২০০৯, পেটেন্ট এবং ডিজাইন এ্যাক্ট ১৯১১ প্রভৃতি।

What is Intellectual property? Or

The Concept of Intellectual Property

In general, the most important feature of the property is that the proprietor or owner may use his property as he wishes and that nobody else can lawfully use his property without his authorization. Of course, there are generally recognized limits to the exercise of that right. For example, the owner of a piece of land is not always free to construct a building of whatever dimensions he wishes but must respect the applicable legal requirements and administrative decisions.

Generally speaking, there are three kinds of property:

(1) Property consisting of movable things, such as a wristwatch or a car. No one except the owner of the wristwatch or the car may use those objects. This is a legal situation which is called an exclusive right, namely, the exclusive right, belonging to the owner, to use the thing which is his property. Naturally, the proprietor may authorize others to use his property.

But such authorization is legally necessary, and use without the owner’s authorization is illegal. Moreover, the right to use is not unlimited: when exercising that right, rights of other persons, for example, in the situation where a road is privately owned by another person, and administrative regulations, for example, speed limits for cars, must be respected.

(2) Immovable property, namely, land and things permanently fixed on it, such as houses. We have already seen an example of the limitations of such property, namely, the requirements to be respected when constructing a building.

(3) Intellectual property. The objects of intellectual property are the creations of the human mind, the human intellect. This is why this kind of property is called “intellectual” property. In a somewhat simplified way, one can state that intellectual property relates to pieces of information that can be incorporated into intangible objects at the same time in an unlimited number of copies at different locations anywhere in the world.

The property is not in those copies but in the information reflected in those copies. Similar to property in movable things and immovable property, intellectual property, too, is characterized by certain limitations, for example, limited duration in the case of copyright and patents.

Intellectual property is usually divided into two branches, namely “industrial” property and “copyright.”

The Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), concluded in Stockholm on July 14, 1967, provides that Intellectual property’ shall include rights relating to:

[1] literary, artistic and scientific works

[2] performances of performing artists, phonograms, and broadcasts

[3] inventions in all fields of human endeavor

[4] scientific discoveries

[5] industrial designs

[6] trademarks, service marks, and commercial designations

[7] protection against unfair competition

and all other rights resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary or artistic fields.” (Article 2(viii).)

The objects mentioned under [1] belong to the copyright branch of intellectual property. The objects mentioned in [2] are usually called “neighbouring rights,” that is, rights neighbouring on copyright. The objects mentioned under [3], [5] and [6] constitute the industrial property branch of intellectual property.

The object mentioned under [7] may also be considered as belonging to that branch, the more so as Article 1(2) of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property (Stockholm Act of 1967) (hereinafter referred to as “the Paris Convention”) includes “the repression of unfair competition” among the objects of “the protection of industrial property”; the said Convention states that “any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial and commercial matters constitutes an act of unfair competition” (Article 10bis(2)).

The object mentioned under [4]-scientific discoveries belongs to neither of the two branches of intellectual property. According to one opinion, scientific discoveries should not have been mentioned among the various forms of intellectual property since no national law or international treaty gives any property right in scientific discoveries. Scientific discoveries and inventions are not the same. The Geneva Treaty on the International Recording of Scientific Discoveries (1978) defines a scientific discovery as “the recognition of phenomena, properties or laws of the material universe not hitherto recognized and capable of verification” (Article 1(1)(i)). Inventions are new solutions to specific technical problems.

Such solutions must, naturally, rely on the properties or laws of the material universe (otherwise they could not be materially (“technically”) applied), but those properties or laws need not be properties or laws “not hitherto recognized.” An invention puts to new use, to new technical use, the said properties or laws, whether they are recognized (“discovered”) simultaneously with making the invention or whether they were already recognized (“discovered”) before, and independently from, the invention.

Intellectual Property & Economic Development:

The contribution of intellectual property to the economic and cultural development of a country is substantial. The granting o a patent monopoly in consideration of the disclosure of the invention enables competitors in the field to manufacture new products or improved produce or effect improvement in the processor manufacture. But for a payment system, much of the technical information would have remained secret and lost to the world. As it is the patent specifications that are available to the public contain practical all the information relating to a field of technology.

What is not available in the patent literature consists of confidential information, industrial and business secrete what is called know-how, which others have, no free access to but which could be obtained b negotiation with the owner of such information for a price. Industrial designs protection encourages people with creative faculty to develop their talent and energy in developing new designs for products. This is particularly so in the case of consumer products including toys, garments, furniture and so on.

Protections of trademarks enable consumers to obtain their products o the right quality, which is accustomed to getting identifying the product by the mark. If trademarks cannot be protected from infringement the market will be flooded with should and spurious goods b unscrupulous persons.

Today copyright affects every industry conceivable. The printing, publishing and entertainment industries like the film recordings industry are almost completely dependent on copyright protection. The manufacture of any kind of machinery or machine is based on industrial drawings, which enjoy copyright protection.

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